Can Prevention of Low Birth Weight in Newborn may be Associated with Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes in Adult Life?

RB Singh, Banshi Saboo, Anuj Maheshwari, Poonam Singh, NS Verma, Shantanu Singhal, Zubin Pradeep Sharma


Poor nutrition during pregnancy may be a risk factor for low birth weight and for irreversible health issues including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in adult life. Low birth weight has also been related to greater mortality from coronary artery disease(CAD) and type 2 diabetes in adult life. One earlier study from Northern Europe proposed that poor social conditions in childhood may be risk factor for obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in later life. It is possible that multiple confounders related to energy and micronutrient deficiencies may be interacting in the process of adaptations in critical time periods, during fetal, postnatal and child development. A review of literature on the effects on birth size and length of babies and of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries indicates that incidence of low birth weight may be decreased by supplementation of about 15 micronutrients. This finding poses the possibility that for prevention of low birth weight, maternal micronutrient supplementation (15-20 nutrients) may be an important strategy. It is proposed that this strategy may lead the prevention of CVDs and type 2 diabetes in adult life. Cohort studies and long term follow up population based trials are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Hypertension; Nutrition; Diabetes; Inutro-undernutrition; Infant heart disease

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