Current Status Regarding Tumour Progression, Surveillance, Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment Of HCC: A Literature Review

Nursakinah Suardi, Ahmad Shukri Mustapa, Hjouj Mohammad, Ammar A. Oglat, Bassam M. Abunahel, Aboubakr M.H Mohamed, Osama Makhamrah

Abstract


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumour of the liver, and is globally considered to be a major causes of cancer-associated mortality. The early diagnosis of HCC improves overall survival through the application of suitable treatment options. This article presents some of the techniques for the surveillance of HCC like ultrasonography and the use of tumour biomarkers such as α-fetoprotein (AFP), DesGamma-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP) and others. Included in the discussion will be diagnostic methods like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), contrast enhancement ultrasound (CEUS), and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography hybrid with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). Current molecular pathogenesis related to HCC and the molecular steps that determine the transition from benign to malignancy are also analysed. The HCC stages which depends on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm are also discussed. Finally, this review article discusses the present therapeutic and treatment options for HCC such as resection, transplantation, or ablation used to treat early stage cancer. Also included will be trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and Sorafenib for patients with intermediate and advanced-stage cancer, respectively.

Keywords


Hepatocellular carcinoma; Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer; trans-arterial chemoembolization; Sorafenib

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